14 March 2017

Chess

Chess is a board game for two players. The chessboard has $8 \cdot 8 = 64$ squares, one of the most popular games in the world.

Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each type of piece has a different move on the board. The pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces. The objective of the game is to "checkmate" the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to "checkmate" the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the adversary, which can occur when many of the pieces have been taken, or when the "checkmate" seems inevitable.

Movements of the pieces:
• The king moves one square in any direction (horizontal, vertical and diagonal). The king has a special move called castling;
• The rook can move any number of squares horizontally or vertically but can not jump over the other pieces. The rook is involved in the special move of the king (castling);
• The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally but can not jump over the other pieces;
• The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares horizontally, vertically or diagonally and can not also jump over the other pieces;
• The knight moves in a "L"-shape: two squares vertically and one square horizontally or two squares horizontally and one square vertically. The knight is the only piece that can jump over the others pieces;
• The pawn can move to any unoccupied square that is in a vertical or diagonal. In its first move, the pawn can advance two squares provided both squares are unoccupied or can move to a square which is occupied by an opponent's piece. The pawn has two special moves, the en passant and the promotion.